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Bsd update and kernel source updating

PAM cannot enforce that; a badly written program, or one infected with malware, might still perform its function even if a user is not authenticated or authorized. The results of all the modules are combined into a single result.

So if the user fails to authenticate using the PAM module for (say) local files (.

Sometime after that, single (remote) user databases became common in large organizations, using technology such as , etc.

Every such change either requires custom versions of applications and daemons, or a re-write of the existing versions. At some point, someone came up with the idea that programs that need authentication should use a standard library for that, which in turn could be configured to use different databases and/or new algorithms just by adding new can be invoked by the PAM library just by editing a text configuration file (which says which authentication modules to use).

PAM is not the only such framework available, but it is the most widely used. Note that most of these frameworks include PAM modules, so even if some application uses one of them, they can still be configured through PAM.

Also, PAM usually includes modules to use these other frameworks, leading to the possibility of the application using PAM to use (say) , which may be configured to use PAM. (See overlapping below for more details.) Keep in mind that PAM, like all such frameworks, can only inform the programs that use it whether or not a user should be allowed access.

From the Free PAM documentation: PAM was defined and developed in 1995 by Vipin Samar and Charlie Lai of Sun Microsystems, and has not changed much since.

In 1997, the Open Group published the X/Open Single Sign-on ( Modern (and most legacy) applications and daemons that need authentication have been re-written (hopefully for the last time! There are many PAM modules (yes I know that's redundant but saying “PAMs” or “PA modules” is awkward) available for every system, each supporting a different authentication method.

The administrator will need to create (if missing) a PAM configuration file for any “PAM-ified” program to be used on the system.